According to the authors of a recent article on the subject, collaborative problem-solving (CPS) is an important 21st century skill because “many of the problems faced in the modern world require teams to integrate group achievements with team members’ idiosyncratic knowledge”. Yet, “systematic education and training on CPS is lacking for those entering and participating in the workforce” (all quotes are from the original article referenced below.)
Compared to other forms of problem-solving or collaboration, CPS is characterized by four interrelated dimensions:
To assess CPS skills, the PISA incorporated competencies previously associated with 2 distinct dimensions: cognitive and collaborative. The first included:
As for collaborative skills, thew were:
Interestingly, however, some factors were found to promote CPS skills--notably being immersed in a culturally and ethnically diverse environment, and participating in group activities such as bands, plays, sports, newspapers, and community service.
Reference: Graesser, Fiore, Greiff, Andrews-Todd, Foltz, Hesse, “Advancing the science of collaborative problem solving”, Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 19:2, pp. 59-92.